General Pathology Section 2 – Cell Injury

TOPICS: Cell Injury, stress, ability to adapt, cell type affected, type of stress, severity, hypoxia, trauma, inflammation, genetic mutations, nutritional abnormalities, hypoxic cellular Injury, decreased ATP production, oxidative phosphorylation, ischemia, inadequate blood flow, decreased arterial perfusion, atherosclerosis, decreased venous drainage, Budd-Chiari syndrome, testicular torsion, generalized hypotension, shock, susceptible organs, watershed areas, low-flow states, arterial insufficiency, diabetes, atherosclerosis, non-occlusive ischemia, sustained hypoperfusion, brain, anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries, neurons, purkinje cells, cerebellum, pyramidal cells, hippocampus, neocortex (zones 3, 5, 6), heart, subendocardium, liver, central vein, zone III, kidneys, straight segment of proximal tubule, thick ascending limb, colon, splenic flexure, griffith point, superior & inferior mesenteric arteries, rectosigmoid junction, sudeck point, sigmoid & superior rectal arteries, infarcts, end-arterial blood supply, kidney, spleen, heart, pale infarcts,dual blood supply, liver, lung, stomach, red infarcts, venous occlusion, reperfusion injuries, reversible injury, cell swelling, oxygen restoration, irreversible injury, breakdown of plasma membrane, cell death, Na+/K+ ATPase, anaerobic glycolysis, lactic acid, decreased pH, membrane blebbing, dissociation of ribosomes from rough ER, Ca2+ effects, Ca2+-ATPase pump, influx of Ca2+ , phospholipases, caspases, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane damage, electron transport chain, cytochrome c, apoptosis, lysosomes, hydrolytic enzymes, autolysis, nuclear degradation

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